Realistic Throat Models

Realistic throat models developed and validated by Virginia Commonwealth University have been adapted for easy use with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) and are available in three sizes to permit realistic in vitro testing. These models retain the internal geometry of the original VCU throats but feature an NGI or ACI connection at the trachea (downstream) while the inlet (upstream) accepts the same sized inhaler mouthpiece adaptor used in conjunction with the United States Pharmacopeia throat inlet.

All models are constructed of robust plastic and lightly frosted inside to permit coating with artificial mucus.

The Medium Mouth-Throat geometry was developed and described in:

  • Transport and deposition of micro-aerosols in realistic and simplified models of the oral airway.
    Xi J, and Longest PW
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2007, 39: 572-591
  • Effects of oral airway geometry characteristics on the diffusional deposition of inhaled nanoparticles
    Xi J, and Longest PW
    ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 2008, 130: 011008
  • In vitro tests for aerosol deposition. I: Scaling a physical model of the upper airways to predict drug deposition variation in normal humans
    Delvadia RR, Longest PW, and Byron PR
    Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 2012, 25(1): 32-40
  • Stepping into the trachea with realistic physical models: Uncertainties in regional drug deposition from powder inhalers
    Byron PR, Delvadia RR, Longest PW, and Hindle M
    Respiratory Drug Delivery 2010 (2010), Vol 1: 215-224
  • In vitro prediction of regional drug deposition from dry powder inhalers
    Delvadia RR, Byron PR, Longest PW, and Hindle M
    Respiratory Drug Delivery 2010 (2010), Vol 3: 907-911

Purchasers assume responsibility for use of these model throats since RDD does not warrant that they are appropriate for particular experimental applications.


  • VTN S: Small VCU Realistic Throat Model for NGI
  • VTN M: Medium VCU Realistic Throat Model for NGI
  • VTN L: Large VCU Realistic Throat Model for NGI

Please contact for details.

All equipment is supplied according to our Terms and Conditions of Sale.